The Rich Flavor of Belachan: A Cornerstone in Peranakan Cooking

Belachan: The Heart of Peranakan Cuisine - Discover How Shrimp Paste Elevates Traditional Dishes

    Belachan, also known as shrimp paste, is an indispensable ingredient in Peranakan cuisine, a fusion of Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian culinary traditions. Its distinct umami flavor and aroma elevate many dishes, making it a beloved staple in Southeast Asian kitchens.

    What is Belachan?

    Belachan is made from fermented shrimp, which is then sun-dried and pressed into solid blocks. This process intensifies its flavor, resulting in a potent, savory paste. It is often sold in blocks or jars and can be found in most Asian grocery stores.

    How Belachan is Made


    The process of making belachan begins with the fermentation of small shrimp or krill. These tiny crustaceans are mixed with salt and left to ferment for several days. The fermentation process is crucial as it develops the deep umami flavor that belachan is known for.


    After fermentation, the shrimp mixture is spread out in the sun to dry. This drying process can take several days, depending on the weather. The sun-drying step is essential to concentrate the flavors and reduce the moisture content of the shrimp paste.

    Pressing and Forming

    Once dried, the shrimp mixture is ground into a paste and then pressed into solid blocks or cakes. These blocks are left to further age, allowing the flavors to mature and intensify. The final product is a dense, dark-colored paste with a strong aroma and rich umami taste.

    Historical Significance in Peranakan Cuisine

    Peranakan cuisine, also known as Nyonya cuisine, originated from the intermarriage of Chinese immigrants with local Malays in the 15th century. This blend of cultures gave rise to a unique culinary tradition that heavily features local ingredients like belachan.

    Belachan's use in Peranakan cooking dates back centuries, showcasing its long-standing importance. It reflects the ingenuity of the Peranakan people in creating complex flavors with readily available ingredients.

    How Belachan is Used in Peranakan Cooking

    Sambal Belachan

    One of the most popular ways to use belachan is in sambal belachan, a spicy chili paste that is a staple condiment in Peranakan households. To make sambal belachan, belachan is toasted and then ground with fresh chilies, lime juice, and sometimes sugar, creating a vibrant, spicy, and tangy paste that pairs well with almost any dish. 


    Laksa, a rich and spicy noodle soup, is another iconic Peranakan dish where belachan plays a crucial role. The paste adds depth to the broth, enhancing the flavors of the coconut milk, lemongrass, and spices.

    Ayam Buah Keluak

    In more elaborate dishes like Ayam Buah Keluak, a chicken stew with Indonesian black nuts, belachan is used to intensify the dish's overall flavor. Its umami quality complements the earthy, nutty taste of the buah keluak, creating a harmonious blend of flavors.

    The Unique Flavor Profile of Belachan

    Belachan's intense umami flavor comes from the fermentation process. This umami, combined with its salty, slightly sweet taste, makes it a powerful ingredient that can transform a dish. Its aroma can be quite pungent to those unaccustomed to it (like how a French Police mistaken the smell for a dead body), but once cooked, it mellows out and becomes an integral part of the dish's flavor profile.

    Cooking Tips and Storage

    When cooking with belachan, it’s often recommended to toast it first to bring out its full flavor. This can be done by wrapping it in foil and heating it in a dry pan or oven. Due to its strong aroma, it's best to store belachan in an airtight container, preferably in the refrigerator, to maintain its freshness.




    Belachan is more than just an ingredient; it is a cultural icon that represents the rich heritage of Peranakan cuisine. Its unique flavor and versatility make it an essential component in many traditional dishes, from simple sambals to complex stews. By understanding and appreciating the significance of belachan, we gain a deeper insight into the culinary traditions and innovations of the Peranakan people.